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At our healthy heart portal we'll be discussing cholesterol, dietary supplements, definitions related to cardiovascular health and topics to help reduce stress and hypertension. A few readers have recommended this product for lowering cholesterol as well as the articles on the site: Online Nutrition Including Healthy Cholesterol with Guarantee We realize a lot of the terminology is complex and hope to end some of this confusion. aneurysm: a permanent abnormal bulging weak or thin spot on a blood vessel caused by disease of the vessel wall. The bursting of an aneurysm in a brain blood vessel causes a hemorrhagic stroke.
Aneurysms are usually present at birth and develop over a number of years, undetected until they break. angina pectoris: chest pain caused by impairment in blood flow through the coronary arteries that feed the heart. anticoagulant agents: drugs used in stroke prevention therapy to prevent blood clots from forming or growing. Anticoagulants interfere with the production of certain blood components necessary for clot formation.
aphasia: the loss or reduction of the ability to speak, read, write, or understand, due to dysfunction of brain centers. apoplexy: Latin word for stroke, derived from the Greek word plesso. Apoplexy was defined as a stroke of Gods hands. arrhythmias: changes in the normal rhythm of the heartbeats.
Some can be quite serious. atherosclerosis: a hardening or buildup of cholesterol plaque and other fatty deposits in the arteries. blood cholesterol: the blood concentration of a family of lipid or "fatty" molecular compounds obtained directly from the diet or produced in the body from fatty dietary components; a necessary factor in development of atherosclerosis; total cholesterol concentration is classified as "high" if it is greater than or equal to 200 mg/dl. Subtypes of cholesterol differ in their relation to cardiovascular risk, with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol considered "good," and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) considered "bad".
brain attack: a term that more accurately describes the effect and action of stroke on the brain. cardiovascular disease(s): may refer to any of the disorders that can affect the circulatory system, but often means coronary heart disease (CHD), heart failure, and stroke, taken together. cardiovascular health: a combination of favorable health habits and conditions that protects against development of cardiovascular diseases. cardiovascular disease prevention: a set of interventions designed to prevent first and recurrent cardiovascular disease (CVD) events (e.
g. , heart attack, heart failure, stroke). For CVD, primary prevention refers to detection and control of risk factors, whereas secondary prevention includes long-term case management for survivors of CVD events. CVD prevention complements cardiovascular health (CVH) promotion.
cardiovascular health promotion: a set of interventions designed to reduce a populations risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) through policy, environmental, and behavioral changes; also supports other approaches that apply to people who have suffered recognized CVD events (e. g. , by facilitating public access to emergency care or by fostering social/environmental and behavioral changes that reinforce secondary CVD prevention); sometimes identified with primordial CVD prevention; complements CVD prevention. carotid stenosis: narrowing of the carotid arteries caused by a buildup of plaque.
comprehensive public health strategy: an approach to a major health problem in the population that identifies and employs the full array of potential public health interventions, including health promotion and disease prevention. coronary heart disease: heart disease caused by impaired circulation in one or more coronary arteries; often manifests as chest pain (angina pectoris) or heart attack. Also referred to as coronary artery disease, Ischemic heart disease, or heart disease. diabetes (or diabetes mellitus): a metabolic disorder resulting from insufficient production or utilization of insulin, commonly leading to cardiovascular complications.
dysphagia: inability to or difficulty in swallowing. embolic stroke: a stroke resulting from the blockage of an artery by a blood clot. embolism: a term used to describe the blockage of a blood vessel by a blood clot originating in another area of the body, usually the heart. epidemiology: the study of the causes and prevention of disease in populations or communities, making it the main source of evidence for public health decision making.
evidence-based medicine: the use of agreed-upon standards of evidence in making clinical decisions for treating individual patients or categories of patients. evidence-based public health: the use of agreed-upon standards of evidence in making decisions about public health policies and practices to protect or improve the health of populations. health disparities: differences in the burden and impact of disease among different populations, defined, for example, by sex, race or ethnicity, education or income, disability, place of residence, or sexual orientation. Healthy People 2010: a document that presents health-related goals and objectives for the United States to be achieved by the year 2010.
heart attack: an acute event in which the heart muscle is damaged because of a lack of blood flow from the coronary arteries, typically accompanied by chest pain and other warning signs, but sometimes occurring with no recognized symptoms (i. e. , "silent heart attack"). heart disease: any affliction that impairs the structure or function of the heart (e.
g. , atherosclerotic and hypertensive diseases, congenital heart disease, rheumatic heart disease, and cardiomyopathies). heart failure: impairment of the pumping function of the heart as the result of heart disease; heart failure often causes physical disability and increased risk for other cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. hemorrhagic stroke: a stroke caused by a ruptured blood vessel and characterized by bleeding within the brain, or bleeding into the space between the brain and the skull.
Hemorrhagic strokes account for 17% of all strokes and are more devastating than the ischemic type. high blood pressure: a condition in which the pressure in the arterial circulation is greater than desired; associated with increased risk for heart disease, stroke, chronic kidney disease, and other conditions; blood pressure is considered "high" if systolic pressure (measured at the peak of contraction of the heart) is greater than or equal to 140 mm Hg, or if diastolic pressure (measured at the fullest relaxation of the heart) is greater than or equal to 90 mm Hg. hypertensive heart disease: abnormality in the structure and function of the heart caused by long-standing high blood pressure; often manifests as heart failure. incidence: the number of new cases of disease occurring in a population of given size within a specified time interval (e.
g. , the average annual incidence of stroke for women in Rochester, Minnesota, during 1985-1989 was approximately 120/100,000 population). infarct: the immediate area of brain cell death caused by a stroke. When the brain cells in the infarct die, they release chemicals that set off a chain reaction that endangers brain cells in a larger surrounding area, known as the penumbra.
ischemia: an interruption or blockage of blood flow to the heart or brain. modifiable characteristics: factors related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk that can be changed or controlled (e. g. , diet, physical activity, smoking), in contrast to those that are unmodifiable, and unable to be changed or controlled by the individual (e.
g. , age, sex, race, genetic traits). mortality: rate of death expressed as the number of deaths occurring in a population of given size within a specified time interval (e. g.
, 265 annual deaths from heart disease per 100,000 U.S. Hispanic women, 19911995). obesity: usually defined in terms of body mass index (BMI), which is calculated as body weight in kilograms (1 kg = 2. 2 lbs) divided by height in meters (1 m = 39. 37 in) squared; adults with a BMI of greater than or equal to 30.
0 kg/m2 are considered "obese," and those with a BMI of 2529. 9 kg/m2 are considered "overweight". In children, overweight is defined as a BMI greater than the 95th percentile value for the same age and sex group. palliative care: palliative care is an approach that improves the quality of life of patients and their families facing the problem associated with life-threatening illness, through the prevention and relief of suffering by means of early identification and impeccable assessment and treatment of pain and other problems, physical, psychosocial and spiritual (World Health Organization).
physical inactivity: lack of habitual activity sufficient to maintain good health, resulting in an unfavorable balance between energy intake and expenditure and fostering the development of overweight or obesity and other risk factors for heart disease and stroke. population-wide approach: an intervention strategy that targets the population as a whole without regard to the risk levels of various subgroups; distinguished from and complementary to the high-risk approach. prevalence: the frequency of a particular condition within a defined population at a designated time (e. g.
, 12. 6 million Americans living with heart disease in 1999, or 36. 4% of African American men aged 2074 years found to have hypertension in a survey conducted in 19881994). prevention research: aims to prevent disease and promote health by developing and disseminating strategies applicable to public health programs and policies.
primary cardiovascular disease prevention: a set of interventions, including the detection and control of risk factors, designed to prevent the first occurrence of heart attack, heart failure, or stroke among people with identifiable risk factors. primordial cardiovascular disease prevention: a set of interventions targeting people without risk factors or cardiovascular disease (CVD), including the maintenance or restoration of favorable social and environmental conditions and the promotion of healthy behavioral patterns to prevent development of risk factors. Often referred to as cardiovascular health promotion.